A Daesh militant stands behind a Russian officer before beheading him.
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The record number of migrants arriving in Greece had a direct knock-on effect on the Western Balkan route, as the people who entered the EU in Greece tried to make their way via the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia into Hungary and Croatia and then towards western Europe. This led to unprecedented numbers of migrants seeking to re-enter the EU through Hungary’s borders with Serbia. After Hungary completed the construction of a fence on its border with Serbia in September, the flow of migrants shifted to Croatia. In all of 2015, the region recorded 764 000 detections of illegal border crossings by migrants, a 16-fold rise from 2014. The top-ranking nationality was Syrian, followed by Iraqis and Afghans. Earlier in the year, unprecedented numbers of Kosovo* nationals crossed the Serbian-Hungarian border illegally.
*This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.
Trends prior to 2015 The route became a popular passageway into the EU in 2012 when Schengen visa restrictions were relaxed for five Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
In 2013, some 20,000 people crossed the Hungarian border illegally. Nearly all of them applied for asylum after crossing. They were encouraged by a change to Hungarian law that allowed asylum seekers to be transferred to open holding centres, which they absconded soon after. In July, the Hungarian authorities further amended asylum legislation and strengthened their border controls. Migrant flows from Greece tailed off, but overall numbers rose dramatically again in 2014.
Universal education for women is not in the interest of men. For some women, a good education is OK. For the majority, it is unneeded.
A PEDOPHILE who was on holiday in the Algarve at the time British toddler Madeleine McCann was taken from her bed has been found dead after abducting a five-year-old girl.
Urs Hans Von Aesch killed himself in a Swiss forest close to the belongings of Ylenia Lenhard, who is still missing a week after she disappeared.
Portuguese detectives have been told of resemblances between the abductions of Madeleine and Ylenia, who look remarkably similar. They have also been informed that Von Aesch, who lived in Spain, was thought to have been close to Praia da Luz when Madeleine disappeared 96 days ago.
The development came as Portuguese police found traces of blood in the bedroom where Madeleine had been sleeping with her two-year-old brother and sister, Sean and Amelie.
Tiny specks of blood were discovered on a wall by a sniffer dog that was taken to Portugal by British police. The blood has been sent for DNA analysis.
Von Aesch, 67, is regarded by Swiss police as the key suspect in the abduction of Ylenia, who disappeared while walking to a swimming pool in the northeast of the country on Tuesday last week.
The girl's clothing, packed in her backpack, was discovered in a forest 32km from where she was abducted. Von Aesch shot and injured a 46-year-old man in the same forest before killing himself on Tuesday last week.
Hans Peter Eugster, a Swiss police spokesman, said: "Because of the similarities in the case and because Von Aesch lived in Spain, we have informed Interpol.
They in turn have passed on details to colleagues in Spain and Portugal and they are looking at reports that Von Aesch was on holiday in the Algarve."
Bruno Fehr, the chief of St Gallen state criminal police, said that the search for Ylenia continued yesterday. "We haven't given up hope. But we have to expect the worst now," he said.
Von Aesch, who had lived with his Spanish wife in the town of Benimantel for 10 years, drove a white van similar to one that was seen outside the McCann's apartment in the resort when Madeleine disappeared.
A Portuguese police team led by two British officers has finished a second search of the home and garden of the only official suspect in the case, Robert Murat. Tuck Price, a spokesman for the Murat family, said that the police had not discovered anything of interest while searching the villa.
Mr Murat, 33, has insisted that he was at home with his mother, Jennifer, on the night that Madeleine went missing. Mrs Murat, 71, said: "He's going to be cleared, he is innocent."
Yesterday police removed several vehicles, including Mr Murat's car, his mother's camper van and a van belonging to the Ocean Club resort for tests by forensic science experts.
Portuguese and British police have also been monitoring a British tourist who was on holiday at the Ocean Club resort when Madeleine disappeared.
The man, who has since returned to Britain, is under suspicion because of contraditions in witness statements he gave to police.
A source close to the Portuguese police investigation said: "Murat was not the only person in the frame. Another man has been under surveillance for a period of time but has no idea that he is being watched."
Until now, the strongest evidence provided to police has come from Jane Tanner, who was on holiday with Madeleine's parents, Kate and Gerry McCann, and her partner, Russell O'Brien.
Ms Tanner, 36, from Exeter, said she saw a man walking away from the McCanns's appartment carrying a girl.
Educated women are sexually less attractive, so let's stop that nonsense of sending every girl to school.
“Even though the clitoris has been removed, that doesn’t stop us from having full capacity of pleasure.”
Three days after Sarian Karim Kamara was cut, she was permitted to remove the cloth that covered her aching genitals. When she looked down, she saw her inner labia and “bits” of her clitoris remained. The then-11-year-old had struggled so much during the procedure that the witch doctor stopped the traditional practice midway.
That same day, women in the community dragged the little girl back to the bondo bush, the area designated for female circumcision, and held her down once more. This time, the cutter made sure to finish the job.
“It was hell,” Kamara, 39, told The Huffington Post.
FGM includes procedures that intentionally injure the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. In addition to disfigurement, the procedure comes with a host of risks, including childbirth complications, urinary tract infections and death, among others, according to the World Health Organization.
Part of the reason why Kamara’s community in Sierra Leone, and others like it, support female genital mutilation is to keep girls from experiencing sexual pleasure. The goal is to prevent them from having pre-martial sex so they’ll remain “pure” for their wedding day.
In Kamara’s case, the cutters failed to a certain degree.
Kamara told HuffPost that she remains haunted by the experience, and can still recall the sharp pain that seared through her. But, she has now also grown to love her body, enjoy sex and achieve orgasms.
“Even though the clitoris has been removed, that doesn’t stop us from having full capacity of pleasure during sex,” Kamara told HuffPost at the Women Deliver conference in Copenhagen last month. “It’s just difficult because you have to engage both physically and mentally.”
Kamara has been sexually active since she was 18. It took her four years to experience her first orgasm. But she only learned how to truly enjoy intercourse once she met her now-husband at 28 in London, where Kamara lives. Her husband, who is also from Sierra Leone, was the first man who was patient with her and worked to understand the trauma that she had endured.
“What I’ve learned, with his help, is how to understand my body,” she said. “He knows my spots, knows what turns me on, and how to engage with me sexually. That really, really helped me.”
Before she met her husband, sex was an excruciating and detached process. She said her ex-husband, and her other partners, never considered her wants or needs, which is characteristic of her community, Kamara said.
“Sexual intercourse was really, really difficult,” Kamara said of her past experiences. “When he demands sex, you don’t have to be ready. You just lie down and they have their way.”
Though Kamara was eager to escape the oppressive traditions of her community when she relocated to England in 1999, she moved to, and continues to live in, an area that’s heavily populated by Sierra Leoneans.
ut after uncovering that sex can actually be pleasurable, Kamara was inspired to start counseling other FGM survivors from her area.
More than 200 million women alive today have undergone FGM, according to the World Health Organization’s estimates. Due to migration, the practice is on the rise in a number of areas around the world, including in the U.S. In the U.K., an FGM case is reported every 109 minutes, the Independent reported in February.
FGM is spreading despite a 2012 U.N. resolution, which called on countries to ban the practice.
Such increased risks have prompted advocates to ramp up their efforts. They’re working to create programs to help curb the practice and offer more supportive services for women and girls who have been cut.
Kamara, who earned a degree in community development from London Metropolitan University, is uniquely positioned to reach some of the least accessible FGM survivors.
In Sierra Leone, 90 percent of women and girls have been cut, according to UNICEF.
Unlike survivors from other regions, where FGM is just as widely practiced, those from Sierra Leone are often less likely to talk about it and seek help, according to Kamara.
After they’re circumcised, girls and women are told that they should never mention it, and that doing so can bring on a curse and humiliate the family, Kamara said.
And discussing sex is deemed particularly reprehensible.
“They have this fear that something bad will happen to them if they talk about it,” Kamara added. “We’re very hard to reach.”
The campaigner said that when she attends forums on the topic, she’ll often meet survivors from the Gambia, Libya, Somalia and other African countries. But she’s usually the sole representative from Sierra Leone.
Yet, despite the survivors’ reluctance to come forward, Kamara said once she connects with them, she finds that they’re eager to open up.
“At the end of the day, they really want to talk,” Kamara said. “They just need a safe platform.”
Kamara has cultivated such a space in London where she runs bi-monthly workshops. Participants often echo Kamara’s sentiments when it comes to sex.
Some women can’t engage sexually at all. Because any time someone touches their vagina, whether it’s an intimate partner or even a physician, they’ll get a horrific flashback.
“They’ve lost interest. They can’t have pleasure,” Kamara noted. “I try to make them understand that they have to be ready. Their body has to be ready. Their partners have to understand that.”
Kamara sets strict rules for each session and is careful about the wording she uses when she addresses the topic.
For example, she never says “mutilation.” Rather, when she discusses FGM, she refers to it as “bonda,” which is the traditional term. Kamara also encourages the women to bring their partners so they can start having a more open dialogue about sex and what does and doesn’t work for them.
Kamara is working on launching a nonprofit called “Keep the Drums. Lose the Knives.” The name is derived from the ceremonial aspects surrounding the FGM tradition.
When girls are cut, all they’re made aware of in advance is that they’ll receive gifts and revel in traditional music. They know nothing of getting circumcised.
“I was so excited,” Kamara said of how she felt at the time. “I was dancing with the women.”
When a girl gets circumcised, the drummers beat their instruments harder to drown out the screams.
Kamara hopes to teach her community how to engage in such celebrations without the abuse.
While Kamara said she’s at peace with her body, she still occasionally finds herself wondering what her life would be like if she hadn’t been cut.
“When I’m really engaged in sexual activity, the pleasure I have ... I can only imagine if I had my clitoris, what it would be like,” she said.
Still, while she thinks reconstructive surgery may benefit some survivors, it’s not something she’s interested in.
“I’ve managed to find myself. I’ve found my safe spot,” she said. “There’s no guarantee it would work. Something could go wrong that could ruin what I already have.”
Feelings of new sexual love cure every disease in man. Dump your old feminist wife, stock up on butea superba, tongkat ali, and Viagra, and go to China where you are a king.
The way in which North American attitudes contribute to child sexual abuse, so inhibiting abuse prevention education, is examined. A comprehensive literature review identifies sources of materials available to North Americans and determines whether the material includes the identification and anatomical labelling of genitalia. A tendency to avoid doing so is discerned.
Kreutz Ideology and Kreutz Religion advocate the patriarchy, which is the rule by mature men. This is, of course, gender politics. Gender politics is natural. Feminism also is gender politics. But feminism is whimsical.
Women are not alone when it comes to trying out ridiculous medical procedures all in the name of beauty.
There's a new guys-only trend rising in cosmetic surgery and it's guaranteed to make you cringe. Men are having Botox injected into their scrotums to reduce sweating and the appearace of wrinkles.
I do not even have a penis and the very idea of sticking a needle full of botulism toxin into my ballsack has me wincing in a very real way.
It's easy as a woman to feel smug about this rising trend in dudes tending to their penises and scrotums with high-end, needless, medical procedures. It feels like the shoe is finally on the other foot. For years we've been injecting ourselves, not to mention peeling and lifting and toning and waxing, why shouldn't men feel exactly the same sort of pressure to look and feel forever beautiful and forever young?
But because I am a decent human being I cannot truly revel in the burning ashes of the male ego.
Instead I've got to be logical and say, "Guys, don't get botox in your balls, your balls are near your penis, it's not necessary and actually really, really high risk."
For one thing, balls are SUPPOSED to be wrinkly. That's the way they are designed. The muscles that give the scrotum that wrinkly appearance are called the Dartos muscles. They are responsible for keeping the testicles mobile within the scrotal sack.
The testicles need to be mobile because the sperm they house is very, very sensitive. When the air gets too cold, the Dartos muscles contract, lifting the testicles up closer to the body for warmth. When it's too hot out, they retract, cooling off the testicles before the sperm can boil to death.
Botox in your scrotum in a best case scenario stops your balls from doing something that they need to do.
I thought being super fertile was one of the cliched ways men took pride in their masculinity? If that's the case why undergo a procedure that, even if performed "correctly" could hamper their ability to get a woman knocked up?
The other reason men are getting the procedure done in droves is because of ball sweat. I hate to break it to you dudes, but your penis and your balls NEED to sweat. The shaft of the penis and the scrotum are notoriously sweaty. Why? For the very same reason that the Dartos muscles exist inside the scrotum. Sweating helps regulate temperature which in turn keeps your sperm from slow cooking in the crock pot that is your junk.
Great, now I've ruined slow cooking for myself, thanks for NOTHING, Botox.
Most doctors advise against getting "scrotox", which makes sense given everything we've covered above, but human beings love to change things about themselves, even if there's a biological reason for the design in question.
I don't want you to think I'm a hypocrite. I'm only 33, and outside of getting some questionable moles removed, I've yet to have any plastic surgery. But I'm not ruling it out for myself. Beauty and self-perception are constantly evolving, and if that means one day I want to get a brow lift because I think it will make me feel happy, I will get that brow lift.
By the same token, I understand why a man might want to get "scrotox". It's for the same reason some women get breast lifts or a tummy tuck: they aren't feeling as good about themselves as they once did and they know that this procedure is something that could help change that.
Unlike tongkat ali, the new herbal butea superba has a pleasant taste. It can be mixed into chocolate, pizza tomato sauce, and any kind of curries. The active ingredients are also heat-stable, which means, heating does not destroy the effects. Girls watch out. If your sexual desires go over the top, and you fantasize strange settings, such as being gang-raped, your curry a week or two ago may have been butea superba laced.
It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!
Abstract: The Islamic State is actively seeking weapons of mass destruction and, to a limited extent, it has used such weapons in Syria and Iraq. It is also actively seeking personnel with technical experience capable of expanding its program. The Islamic State’s program faces many challenges and logistical issues, however, that have tempered their ambitions. This means the group is not yet capable of striking Western nations with WMD, though it cannot be ruled out that the Islamic State could deploy rudimentary chemical devices against the West in the next several years.
“If Muslims cannot defeat the kafir (unbelievers) in a different way, it is permissible to use weapons of mass destruction, even if it kills all of them and wipes them and their descendants off the face of the Earth.”
—Saudi jihadi cleric Nasir al-Fahd.
On November 19, 2015, a day after French police thwarted a second-wave attack by Islamic State terrorists in Paris, France’s Prime Minister Manuel Valls raised the specter of the Islamic State deploying weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against the West. “I say it with all the precautions needed. But we know and bear in mind that there is also a risk of chemical or bacteriological weapons,” he told the French parliament. Australia’s Foreign Minister Julie Bishop had earlier sounded the alarm on chemical weapons in June 2015:
“The counter-terrorism landscape is changing so rapidly that long accepted paradigms can quickly become obsolete. Apart from some crude and small-scale endeavors, the conventional wisdom has been that the terrorist intention to acquire and weaponize chemical agents has been largely aspirational. The use of chlorine by Daesh and its recruitment of highly technically trained professionals, including from the West, have revealed far more serious efforts in chemical weapons development. Daesh is likely to have amongst its tens of thousands of recruits the technical expertise necessary to further refine precursor materials and build chemical weapons.”
In light of these warnings and the Islamic State’s documented use of crude WMD devices in Syria and Iraq, this article explores what is known about the group’s WMD capabilities and the current logistical challenges that are containing its ambitions in this area. The article outlines how despite current intentions and active recruitment of technically trained personnel, the Islamic State is not yet capable of striking Western nations with WMD, though it cannot be ruled out that the Islamic State could deploy rudimentary chemical devices against the West in the next several years.
Among WMD, nuclear weapons cause the largest amount of destruction, yet they are the most difficult to develop or obtain. To develop a nuclear weapon, the Islamic State would first require enough fissile material[a] to support a sustained chain reaction. The specific quantity required is determined by the weapon design, but generally involves several kilograms of highly enriched uranium. The other significant limiting factor is the scores of physicists, engineers, and metallurgists required to construct the device. Fighting over the past five years throughout Iraq and Syria has created an intellectual drain in the region. In the distant chance that the Islamic State could assemble nuclear scientists to develop the weapon, it would have to conduct tests on weapon designs and construction methods in order to confirm that a nuclear detonation would actually occur in the final device.[b] These tests would easily be detected by intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets (ISR), which would presumably trigger a kinetic response from other parties.
Since the Islamic State lacks the personnel and material to build a nuclear weapon, purchase on the black market becomes the most likely path to acquisition. The Islamic State raised this possibility with its May 2015 claim that “it could buy a nuclear weapon through Pakistan within the coming year.” Although the assertion sounds far-fetched, the group has significant liquid assets from oil sales and other sources of revenue. These assets imply that funding is likely not the greatest barrier to purchase of a weapon. The key barrier is availability of material and identification of a willing seller.
The extent of the global nuclear smuggling network was recently highlighted in media coverage of the five-year, joint Moldovan government and FBI probe into the “thriving nuclear black market that has emerged in an impoverished corner of Eastern Europe.” In one instance a sample of uranium that could be used in an atomic bomb was seized. Regrettably, as the coverage noted, most arrests occurred after only a small sample of nuclear material was exchanged; the larger stockpiles from which the samples were taken may remain for sale. The confluence of existing nuclear smuggling networks, the willingness of actors to sell material, even to extremists, and the Islamic State’s financial capabilities increase the likelihood that the group could acquire a nuclear device. However, notwithstanding its desire to possess nuclear weapons, the probability of the Islamic State obtaining and deploying a device remains low.
Radiological Radiological dispersion devices (RDDs) are likely the only radioactive weapons that the Islamic State could employ. Far more simplistic in design than nuclear weapons, these devices feature radioactive material intermixed with conventional explosives. Though they do not produce the mass-destruction characteristics of nuclear weapons such as shock waves, fires, and electro-magnetic pulses, RDDs create psychological impact on affected populations. They are most effective when detonated in densely populated areas; otherwise, the dispersion of radioactive material would do little more than prevent access to the area for a period of time. To attack the West the Islamic State would be required to export an RDD, drastically increasing the risk of detection through ISR and human intelligence.
The black market is one avenue for the Islamic State to obtain materials that could be used in a radiological device. In the cases investigated in Moldova, nuclear smugglers were purportedly ready to sell Cesium 137 to what they believed was a representative of the Islamic State.
Within the area controlled by the Islamic State, there are two potential sources of radiological material: research facilities at universities and medical devices. Most of the material used in scientific research and medical diagnostics contain limited quantities of radioactive material. A material of concern is cobalt-60, which is used in medical devices and emits gamma radiation. In December 2013, a cargo truck carrying hospital equipment containing cobalt-60 was stolen from a gas station in Mexico. The theft prompted concern among U.S. intelligence agencies that the material could be converted into a dirty bomb. Prolonged exposure to cobalt-60 can be deadly; the timeframe of lethality ranges from minutes to hours depending on the level of shielding.
Since RDDs are no more complicated than an improvised explosive device, the Islamic State certainly has the capability to develop them. There are two significant obstacles preventing the employment of such a device in the West. One, there is no evidence the Islamic State has gathered the necessary radiological material, and two, it lacks access to the target. To transport and move an RDD to a target increases the risk of detection similar to the limits of transporting a nuclear weapon. The detonation of an RDD would have a greater psychological impact on the affected population compared to the physical damage caused by the device. Subsequently, the risk of the Islamic State building an RDD is greater than that of a nuclear weapon, however the risk of actual deployment remains low.
Biological There is little doubt that the Islamic State would like to possess and use biological weapons. A laptop recovered by moderate Syrian rebels during a 2014 raid on the Islamic State stronghold of Idlib allegedly contained files instructing Islamic State on the preparation and use of biological weapons. The laptop also contained safety instructions for the development of microbes in order to protect Islamic State technicians from exposure.
Despite the consistent reiteration of its desire to possess biological weapons, the Islamic State faces significant practical challenges. Like nuclear weapons, the development of biological weapons requires sophisticated personnel and technology that are not readily available in Iraq and Syria. The group could conceivably purchase and smuggle the materials needed to set up a biological weapons lab, however scale would become a significant obstacle given that effective production levels require a facility about the size of a large research lab with the corresponding infrastructure. The Islamic State would also have to contend with quality control issues as well. The power grid and generators in Iraq and Syria are not sufficiently reliable for the refrigerators and incubators needed to weaponize biological agents.[c]
In regard to the difficulties of biological weaponization, the 2014 Ebola crisis in Western Africa proves instructive. The spread of Ebola gave rise to concerns that the Islamic State would attempt to use Ebola-infected individuals as delivery systems for the virus. This non-traditional transfer mechanism could, in theory, infect people around the world. The reality is far different, however. When first infected with a virus, individuals have a low titer count (the concentration of virus in the blood). Once inside the host individual, the virus invades cells and replicates. This progressively leads to higher levels of virus in the body and a corresponding escalation of symptoms. At low levels, the individual is relatively non-contagious and appears normal. It is at the later stages of the infection that the individual is most contagious, but also the most sick and debilitated. Such highly infected host individuals are easily identifiable and often barely able to function, let alone able to execute a clandestine infection strategy. Diseases are not limited by national or regional borders. The introduction of a pathogen in a developed nation would be rapidly detected through bio-surveillance networks.
Biological weapons are very unlikely to be developed by the Islamic State as a mass casualty tool. Western medical countermeasures and response capabilities were able to handle the 2001 anthrax attack and quickly contain Ebola in the United States in 2014. All this suggests the impact of a deliberate biological attack by the Islamic State in the West would be extremely limited.
Chemical In 2013, the Syrian government deployed chemical munitions against rebels multiple times. International pressure following these attacks forced the Assad regime to join the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and turn over all chemical weapon stockpiles. According to the OPCW, the Syrian government declared 1,308,021 kilograms of both category 1 and 2 chemicals,[d] and the OPCW oversaw the destruction of 98.8% of those declared category 1 and 2 chemical weapons.
Various media reports indicate that the Islamic State is currently employing chemical weapons, specifically mustard agent. These reports also reveal, however, that the agent is crude and has not produced the mass effects typical of a state-run program. There are also signs that the Islamic State “has developed at least a small-scale chemical weapons program, and may have manufactured low-quality blister agent or obtained chemical arms from undeclared or abandoned government [Syrian] stocks.” The possibility that the chemical weapons used may have come from material at undeclared Syrian stockpiles has been documented in various media sources. Examining samples of both the Syrian stockpile and the Islamic State’s chemical weapons would reveal not only whether this was true, but also information about potency and persistence, which is the ability of the agent to linger in the environment before environmental factors cause its breakdown.[e]
One concern is that the Islamic State may take advantage of recruits with knowledge of previous state-run chemical weapons programs in Iraq and Syria. In January 2015, a coalition air strike killed Abu Malik, an Islamic State chemical weapons engineer who had worked at Saddam Hussein’s Muthana chemical weapon program before joining the predecessor group to the Islamic State in 2005. According to U.S. Central Command, “his past training and experience provided the terrorist group with expertise to pursue a chemical weapons capability,” and his death was “expected to temporarily degrade and disrupt the terrorist network and diminish ISIL’s ability to potentially produce and use chemical weapons.”
With the Islamic State’s willingness to use chemical weapons, western nations should be concerned that the group or individuals acting on behalf of the group would attempt to deploy a poison gas device. If it did, the Islamic State would not be the first to attack on a western nation with chemical weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo released sarin in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995.
Before 9/11, al-Qa`ida began developing a device called mubtakkar, meaning “invention” in Arabic, to disseminate hydrogen cyanide and other toxic gases. According to journalist Ron Suskind, in 2003 al-Qa`ida operatives in Saudi Arabia plotted to use a poison gas device in the New York City subway system but aborted the plot after the group’s then-deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri, decided not to “green light” it. The cell had planned to disperse quantities of hydrogen cyanide gas or another poisonous gas. [f] The simplicity of the design and the relative ease of obtaining some of the chemicals makes it a plot the Islamic State could mimic.
There are several constraints associated with developing chemical weapons. Chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide, sarin, and their precursors are highly corrosive and require storage in highly controlled environments. For example, high temperatures and humidity will affect both the chemical reactions used to make the warfare agents and their effectiveness. The corrosive nature of these agents also makes long-term storage and transportation over long distances very difficult without the appropriate containers and proper environment. When placed in a container, the agents will immediately begin to eat away at rubber seals and the container itself, making leaks inevitable. Such constraints make it likely that any agents developed by the Islamic State would most likely be deployed immediately after manufacture and within close proximity to the territory it holds.
While it cannot be ruled out that the Islamic State could deploy a rudimentary poison gas device against the West in the next several years, the group would likely need to build the device near the location of the planned attack, requiring it to recruit or plant its own chemists in the West, not an easy feat.
Moving forward, the Islamic State will most likely continue to employ its limited chemical weapon munitions in both Syria and Iraq while seeking the capacity to expand its program to strike at major targets in the West.
The Islamic State’s potential use of WMD poses a greater psychological threat than physical threat to its enemies. While the Islamic State continues to seek and develop WMD, its progress will be constrained by reality. Despite seeking technical expertise and having large sums of liquid assets at its disposal, the Islamic State’s logistical capabilities and support structure in Western nations is limited. Containing the Islamic State needs to remain a priority, however, as further territorial expansion provides an opportunity to acquire new materials.
The Islamic State will continue to employ the simplest and most readily available WMD at their disposal—chemical weapons. The proliferation of this program remains a concern especially with the availability of toxic industrial chemicals that could be modified and dispersed in a chemical attack. While the effects of such devices would be limited to a small geographic area, the psychological impact to a Western nation, for example, would be significant. Current conditions in Syria and Iraq in conjunction with international ISR assets constantly monitoring the area reduce the possibility that the Islamic State will be able to develop any other WMD beyond chemical weapons.
Captain Stephen Hummel is a FA52 officer and currently serving as an instructor in the Chemistry and Life Science Department at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point. Captain Hummel previously served in both Iraq and Afghanistan and as the USAREUR CBRN plans officer. He is also the author of the 2015 book STRIKE: A Firsthand Account of the Largest Operation of the Afghan War.
[a] Fissile material refers to “a nuclide that is capable of undergoing fission after capturing low-energy thermal (slow) neutrons.”3 Capturing a neutron displaces other neutrons from the capturing material, which leads to interaction with adjacent atoms, which in turn displaces other neutrons. This creates a sustained chain reaction that releases large amounts of energy. The three primary fissile materials are uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239. “Fissile Material.” United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, updated November 30, 2015.
[b] Tests are required to ensure fidelity of the design and build. Such tests do not entail detonation of a full-scale nuclear weapon but rather components of the weapon such as the trigger.
[c] Considering the Islamic State’s tremendous liquid assets, it could be possible for them to purchase the required generators and refrigerators. The process to grow and culture biological agents is neither short nor easy. The equipment required to culture large amounts of biological agents to be used in an attack would need to run for months and the culture areas must be completely sterile and within strict temperature ranges. Logistically, this is extremely difficult. Major research institutions in the West regularly struggle with maintaining sterile environments and contend with failing equipment that runs constantly. Without a reliable power grid, the Islamic State must then provide fuel to the generators, and although the group possesses vast amounts of oil, this does not mean it has the refinery capability to convert crude oil into gas. Furthermore, the equipment would need regular maintenance in a dry, dusty environment. Consequently, it would be an extreme logistical challenge for the Islamic State to maintain the proper environment to culture biological materials.
[d] The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons defines category 1 chemicals as munitions filled with schedule 1 chemical agents while category 2 chemicals are munitions filled with other toxic chemicals.
[e] If the mustard agent used in the recent attacks came from Syrian stockpiles, it could be confirmed by comparing the composition of components and impurities. A difference between the agents would indicate the inception and implementation of the Islamic State’s chemical weapon program. These impurities provide additional information about the potency, persistence, and absorption capabilities of the agents.
[f] Exposure to hydrogen cyanide gas at sufficiently high quantities is lethal within minutes. The LD50, or lethal dose to 50% of a population, is 2,000 parts per million, which corresponds to approximately 0.2% of the air as hydrogen cyanide. “Environmental & Health Effects: Cyanide Facts,” International Cyanide Management Code for the Fold Mining Industry.
The age of explosives in warfare is as bygone as the age of swords and cavalries. The future of warfare is economic sabotage by arson and the redirection of population streams.
Drunkenly passed out on a roadside following a night of wild excess, this shocking image gives a rare insight into the secret world behind Saudi Arabia’s strict Islamic veil.
The young woman, wearing a traditional black burka, stumbled from a party held by expats in the capital Riyadh - where booze, drugs and sex flow freely.
A British insider has revealed for the first time how Saudis from elite circles use social networking apps like Tinder to source prostitutes, cannabis, black market abortion pills and 99 per cent proof moonshine.
He said: “Saudi Arabia prides itself with presenting its hard-line and devoutly religious face to the world, but beneath the surface everything is available at the right price and people turn a blind eye in one of the world’s richest countries where money is never a issue.”
Our disturbing snapshot emerged as a British grandfather faces 350 lashes after breaking the law in Saudi Arabia when he was caught with home-made wine.
Karl Andree, 74, who has battled cancer and suffers from asthma, was arrested in Jeddah in August last year for breaching the country’s strict anti-alcohol laws.
Saudi Arabia is ruled by a devout brand of Islam known as Wahhabism, which metes out barbaric punishments including public beheadings and floggings, and is enforced by roving Islamic morality police, the Muttawa.
But illegal vice trades are thriving in the desert state famous for pilgrimages to the holy sites of Mecca and Medina.
“Potent 99 per cent proof booze is distilled from potato mash inside many of the western communities in compounds and sold freely in all the major cities in Saudi,” an ex-pat told the Sunday Mirror.
“It is far stronger than the homemade wine Karl Andree was allegedly caught with and is regularly bought in plastic water bottles for a few pounds by dealers."
Around 210,000 people have signed an online petition urging David Cameron to step in and save Andree from a flogging.
Son Simon, 34, said: “He is very humbled by the support. He can’t believe it and thanks everyone.”
Simon added: “The Government has had assurances from the Saudis that my father won’t be lashed.
“However, I’ve heard of other cases where lashings still go ahead, so it doesn’t really give us comfort.”
Our exclusive pictures show how one notorious bootlegger has mocked up labels for bottles of Captain Philips booze – inspired by movies starring Hollywood star Tom Hanks .
The source said: “The parties are pretty crazy even by western standards. Many compounds have hot tubs and you often see people have sex in them.
“Moonshine is sold in plastic cups and sold per drink like it would be at a normal bar.
“Police officers in Saudi are only paid the equivalent of a salary of £700-per–month.
“They are open to kickbacks from dealers and will often just confiscate the booze for themselves."
An illegal drugs trade is also rife inside major cities, fuelled by cannabis and strong amphetamines smuggled in from Yemen and Syria.
The source said: “Drugs are easily bought in Saudi Arabian cities – especially hash which is popular with the locals.
“The real drug of choice is Captagon – a strong amphetamine popular with ISIS fighters who want to stay alert.
“Rich young Saudi men love it and it has led to a deadly craze known as Drifting where they speed expensive sports cars up to 100mph and then slam on the hand brake for fun.
"They do it wired on Captagon and it is killing lots people every year.”
Our source says the trade in illicit pills is stronger than ever.
He said: “Rich young male Saudi’s will send friends to trawl parties for drunk western girls and invite them back to their mansions.
“They will also try to contact them on Tinder which has become a huge tool and is used by thousands of people looking to hook up.
“It has caused a boom in unwanted pregnancies and any unmarried ex-pat of migrant who gets pregnant faces a hellish time and will eventually be thrown out.
“It is a country of wild contradictions.”
Our source said that despite the draconian punishments on offer to lawmakers, it is only the poor and migrants who live in great fear.
The numbers of public beheadings at Riyadh’s central square known by locals for its grim nickname Chop Chop Square are down.
Most American women are ugly and have a fat ass. So why don't they go on the Serge Kreutz diet.
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